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Recomended powder factor mining

  • Ring Blasting Mine to Mill Optimization Benjamin Cebrian

    Powder factor (kg/t) Energy Factor (kJ/t) Up hole Bulk Emulsion 102 DG 2-4 2.7 2.9 0.37 1,225 Up hole Bulk Emulsion 102 DG 5 2.3 2.6 0.45 1,485 Down hole Cartridged Emulsion 89 DG 2-4 2.3 2.6 0.26 1,160 Down hole Cartridged Emulsion 89 DG 5 2.0 2.6 0.3 1,335 Fragmentation and Ore Loss Results

  • Selection of Powder Factor in Large-Diameter Blast Holes

    the shovels is affected by powder factor. The cost of shovel teeth plus wear materials on buckets improves with higher powder expenditures.(fig. 7) The effect on the primary crusher is to increase through-put as powder factor rises.(fig. 8) The last step in tracking powder factor is in the secondary and tertiary grinding and in milling.

  • Concept of Blastability Œ An Update - Mining and Blasting

    factor, which may be defined as the powder factor required for the optimum fragmentation, throw, ground vibration, etc. for a specified blast condition to minimize the overall mining cost. Presently, the powder factor is established through the trial blasts. However, powder factor may be approximated using rock, design and explosive parameters.

  • Determining minimum burdens for quarry blasting

    The use of Powder Factor in blast design The Powder Factor can be used to design the distribution of explosives in the rock mass that is to be blasted. The critical dimension is the burden distance which is the shortest distance to stress relieve when a shot-hole

  • Powder Factor McCallum Rock Drilling

    Jul 16, 2018· Powder factor is expressed in many different forms. Essentially it is a measurement of explosives per quantity of rock. The typical variation of this that we use on a daily basis is how many pounds of explosives per cubic yard of rock.

  • Explosives Engineers Guide - Dyno Nobel

    Typical powder factors used in presplit and smooth blasting Hole diameter PF (kg/m2) Hard 0.6 0.9 Medium 0.4 0.5 Soft 0.2 0.3 Dyno Nobel Asia Pacific Pty Limited 2020.

  • Definition of powder factor

    Definition of powder factor The quantity of explosive used per unit of rock blasted, measured in lb/yd 3 (kg/m 3 ) per ton (metric ton) of rock. Click here to see list of references, authorities, sources and geographical terms as used in this glossary.

  • Optimization of Blasting Parameters in opencast Mines

    adopted by the mining industry to compare the explosive costs and achieve better blasting results and. The model developed is a user friendly one, since by keeping the powder factor and number of choices of explosives available as constant and by varying the parameters like

  • Modeling of Dynamic Break in Underground Ring Blasting

    In underground mining operations, the preference is to define PF (powder factor) as the weight of explosive required per unit volume or weight of ore used to fragment either a cubic meter or tonne of solid material. Thus, the units become kg/m 3 or kg/tonne using

  • Assessment of powder factor in surface bench blasting by

    IJRET: International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology. eISSN: 2319-1163 pISSN: 2321-7308. ASSESSMENT OF POWDER FACTOR IN SURFACE BENCH BLASTING USING SCHMIDT REBOUND NUMBER OF

  • literature review of powder factor in mining

    Breakage and fragmentation modelling Mining and Blasting. 22 th July 2020 / products / shen / 7 Comments; A review of breakage and fragmentation modelling literature has shown that only a few The first stage ofminution process in metalliferous mining is the breakage and frameworks, with design variables that are familiar to the mine blast engineer e.g. powder factor, burden and spacing, making

  • Study on optimum powder factor and quality of explosives

    Bulk explosives, booster and blast design play an important role in rock blasting. Bulk explosives are booster sensitive explosives. The firing density is in range of 1.05 to 1.20/cm3. The velocity of detonation and absolute weight strength (AWS) is in range of 3500 to 4500m/s and 800 to 850kcal/kg. Powder factor is an important economic index for assessment of blastabiliy of rock.

  • Blasting Techniques Used in Underground and Opencast Mines

    Powder factor with solid blasting is 1.5 to 2.5 te of coal per kg of explosive and 0.8 to 1.25 te of coal per detonator. DGMS stipulations on maximum permissible charge in a shot-pole, delay interval, etc. in u/ g coal mines. I. Explosives: II. Delay Detonators:

  • fragmentation Mining and Blasting

    POWDER FACTOR. In construction blasting, powder factor (PF) is expressed as quantity (unit mass) of explosive per unit volume of material blasted. For mining, it is usually expressed as quantity of explosive per ton of material (or sometimes tons of material per unit mass of explosive). Fig 5

  • Drilling patterns - QueensMineDesignWiki

    Powder Factor. Powder factor and the appropriate charging of drill holes is very important in underground mining as malfunctions are very common in the close proximity of loaded holes and the confining environment creating unfavorable breaking conditions. The above equations may be used to estimate parameters of a blast with other known values.

  • Monte Carlo simulation - QueensMineDesignWiki

    Mining companies require significant funding to begin a project, and to obtain this financing, they must often turn to debt markets. Due to the substantial investment, it is essential that mining projects be evaluated in terms of economic viability. In the first approach, which is making the powder factor constant, the Monte Carlo simulator


    As a consequence, the profi t of a mining operation can be greatly improved through optimised fragmentation. Other unit operations can be greatly assisted by altering blast induced fragmentation. FINE MATERIAL Excessive fragmentation, often a result of higher than optimum powder factor, leads to generation of signifi cant amounts of fi ne

  • (PDF) Design methodology for underground ring blasting

    184 Mining Technology 2007 VOL 116 NO 4 Onederra and Chitombo Design methodology for underground ring blasting 6 Static 3D explosive energy distribution of 64 mm versus 76 mm blasthole configurations An extension of this graphical analysis is shown in overall dynamic powder factor for the 10 ms interhole Fig. 7, where the average toe energy

  • I UNDERGROUND BLASTING - Mining and Blasting

    In mining, shafts form a system of vertically or inclined passageways, which are used for transportation of ore, refill, personnel, equipment, air, electricity, ventilation etc. In The powder factor in shaft sinking is rather high, ranging from 2.0 kg/m3 to 4.0 kg/m3 (Olofsson). mtmy 14

  • Technical Note on The Prediction and Control of Flyrock

    recommended a powder factor of 0.4 kg/m 3 for blasting with burdens between 1 and 10 m. From econimical point of view, Gustafsson (1973) has suggested a powder factor of 0.5 kg/m 3 for quarry blasting. Based on observations from limestone quarries, Adhikari (1999) has used 0.45 kg/m 3 as the optimum powder factor and

  • Blasting Safety Revisiting Site Security

    Delay systems, powder factor, and pounds per delay, Type and amount of explosive material, and Type and amount of stemming. The Federal Office of Surface Mining (OSM) regulations [30 CFR § 816.67 and 817.67] help to characterize the bounds of the blast area by specifying that flyrock shall not be cast from the blasting site


    Powder factor or specific charge or blasting ratio: This is the ratio between the mass of explosives required to break a given quantity of rock and is normally expressed in kg/m3 or kg/t3. Table 1 is a guide to the powder factor for a given type of explosive in various types of rock.

  • Improving mine productivity by better analysis of blasting

    Changes in blast parameters show results in that cost reduced to Rs 2.8/t with powder factor improved to 12.29 t/kg, drilling factor of 111.18 t/m and tonnage per hole increased to 1443 t(per hole getting 68 t more). showed improvement as compared with the previous blast design.

  • Controlling fragmentation - Orica Mining Services

    00 International Mining SEPTEMBER 2012 FRAGMENTATION Orica took over management of the drill and blast operations and following a full assessment developed 18 distinct templates. The result was a greater than 30% improvement in production at a lower overall powder factor. To cite a different case, from Australia, the

  • The Powder Factor Dilemma - iRing

    In surface mining operations, the weight of explosive used per unit volume of rock blasted is measured in pounds per cubic yard) lb/yd 3) (kg/m 3) to produce broken material is defined as powder factor.However, in underground mining operations the preference is to define powder factor as the weight of explosive required per unit of weight of rock to fragment either a metric tonne or an

  • Back to Basics

    In mining, powder factor is usually expressed in pounds per ton (or tons per pound of explosive). When discussing powder factors, it is important to know whether one is using shot powder factor or pay (or yield) powder factor. Shot powder factor includes the material in the sub-drilling zone in the

  • BLAST DESIGN RULES OF THUMB - Office of Surface Mining

    POWDER FACTOR (PF) = powder per hole divided by rock volume per hole. PF(lb/yd 3 ) = CW / (B X S X H / 27) SCALED DISTANCE (SD) = Distance to structure divided by square root of the

  • Study of the Powder Factor in Surface Bench Blasting

    1.1 powder factor 7kh txdqwlw\ ri h[sorvlyh uhtxluhg wr iudjphqw p ru wrqqh ri urfn lv nqrzq dv srzghu idfwru -lphqr & / hw do ,w fdq vhuyh d ydulhw\ ri sxusrvhv vxfk dv dq lqglfdwru ri

  • Multi-seam coal mining - SciELO

    Mining at Khutala Colliery takes place at 3 of those seams: No. 2, No. 4, and No. 5. This panel design will focus on the No. 2 and No. 4 seam. Multi-seam mining The mining of multiple seams has long been practised at the Khutala Colliery. By definition, multi-seam coal mining is the mining of coal seams that overlay each other in a vertical


    IJRET: International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology eISSN: 2319-1163 pISSN: 2321-7308 ASSESSMENT OF POWDER FACTOR IN SURFACE BENCH BLASTING USING SCHMIDT REBOUND NUMBER OF ROCK MASS Bhanwar S. Choudhary1, Kumar Sonu2 1 Assistant Professor, 2B.Tech Student, Department of Mining Engineering, Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad-826004,

  • (PDF) Determination of Powder Factor for an Optimize d

    Sep 16, 2007· PDF On Sep 16, 2007, Hossein Nezamabadi-pour and others published Determination of Powder Factor for an Optimize d Blast Pattern Design

  • blasting Mining and Blasting

    POWDER FACTOR. In construction blasting, powder factor (PF) is expressed as quantity (unit mass) of explosive per unit volume of material blasted. For mining, it is usually expressed as quantity of explosive per ton of material (or sometimes tons of material per unit mass of explosive). Fig 5

  • Impact of Blast Design Parameters on Blasted Muckpile

    Oct 28, 2018· 3.5 Influence of powder factor on muckpile properties. Due to variations made in values of spacing, burden, stemming and bench height, powder factor and geological conditions, values of powder factor moved from 0.79 kg/cum to 1.21 kg/cum. Relation between powder factor and muck properties are as shown in Figure 18, 19, and 20.

  • Powder Factor Solutions

    Get the edge in fragmentation. Powder Factor Solutions is a specialist drill & blast design team based in Western Australia serving our global customers through cloud-based technologies. Utilising cutting edge modelling algorithms; which extend and expand on current industry best-practice; PFS supports your team to deliver optimal rock fragmentation across your entire mining operation.

  • Evaluating the effectiveness of powder factor - Pit

    Jun 12, 2019· Powder factor is a design methodology rooted in the idea that a set number of pounds of explosives per cubic yard (or ton) of rock will give specific desired blast results. This technique was invented in the 1600s in order to design blasts utilizing black powder that would cause breakage to corners of benches utilizing cratering assumptions

  • Major Mines & Projects Whabouchi Project

    Blasting will be carried out using bulk emulsion with an average powder factor of 0.37 kg/t. The mine workforce has been estimated to be approximately 109 employees. Underground Mining: The ore extraction will switch form an open pit operation to an underground mine located underneath the final pit floor in Year 24 of the operation.

  • (PDF) Determination of Powder Factor for an Optimize d

    PDF On Sep 16, 2007, Hossein Nezamabadi-pour and others published Determination of Powder Factor for an Optimize d Blast Pattern Design Using Artificial Neural Network (Case Study: Gol-e

  • A new methodology to estimate the powder factor of

    Sep 01, 2019· The powder factor and the advancement rate are theoretically obtained when the blast is designed, using the above parameters. Furthermore, the powder factor is defined as the quantity of explosive used per unit of rock blasted (kg/m 3). In the blast design, the geomechanical characteristics of the rocks to be blasted are taken into account, as

  • Chapter 8 BLAST DESIGN - National Park Service

    Powder Factor = Tons of rock (or cubic yards) per pounds of explosive. Normal range = 4 to 7 Shallow holes = 1 to 2 External loads = .3 Tons of Rock = Powder Factor lbs of Explosives The higher the powder factor, the lighter the load. Lower powder factor means more explosives. Example: 1.5 tons = PF of 6.25lbs BURDEN-SPACING CALCULATION From

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